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The paper, "Race-specific HIV-1 disease-modifying effects associated with CCR5 haplotypes," will be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Oct. 12. In this work, the authors from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio use a number of scientific terms, including:

  • HIV-1: A strain of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Infection with HIV strains may progress to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS.
  • CCR5: A major portal of cell entry for HIV-1. CCR5, short for "CC chemokine receptor 5," is a major focus of study for AIDS researchers. CCR5 is on the exterior of the cell.
  • Allele: Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a given locus. A gene variant.
  • Cohort: A research population.
  • Caucasians: Research population including Hispanics.
  • Co-receptor: A molecule that assists or enables the human immunodeficiency virus to latch onto and enter a cell. CCR5 is a co-receptor.
  • Haplotype: A stretch of DNA sequence that is linked and is inherited as a unit. DNA is the genetic blueprint found in cells.
  • CCR5 human haplogroups (HH): Groups of DNA sequences categorized based on their genotypic features and labeled as (HH)-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F and -G.
  • Possession of HHA and HHF*2 haplotypes: Associated with maximal delay in progression to AIDS and death in African Americans.
  • Possession of HHC and HHD haplotypes: Associated with acceleration in progression to AIDS and death in African Americans.
  • Possession of HHC and HHG*2 haplotypes: Associated with maximal delay in progression to AIDS and death in Caucasians.
  • Two copies of HHE haplotype: Associated with acceleration in progression to AIDS and death in Caucasians.